7. Glossary#


Pseudonym, substitute name. Aliases allow multiple names to be given to the same entity. It is a concept frequently used in computer science. For example, we speak of an alias when we point several email addresses to the same inbox, or when we define a new name for a command. — Wiktionary


Application Programming Interface, an interface intended to be used not by a human being but by a software. It is generally composed of a set of functions that a software can use remotely. — Wikipedia


Command Line Interface, an interface in command line, based on a textual display. It is used through a terminal window. The CLI is very interesting because it can be used by humans as well as by software. — Wikipedia


Piece of software that accesses a service made available by a server. It usually has a graphical interface, intended to be used directly by a human. — Wikipedia

computer network#

Set of computers linked together in order for them to exchange data. — Wikipedia


Web service providing hosting for software development and version control using Git.


Unlike most of the projects that can be found there, Github is neither libre, nor open source and belongs to Microsoft.



Groups are used to gather users in order to assign them common rights. A UNIX user belongs to one or more groups.


It is possible to find out who is a member of a group on the server from an SSH access with the following command:

members <group>

By replacing <group> with the desired group. Example: members sudo or members home.


hidden file#
hidden folder#

In most operating systems, it is possible to hide files or folders. This is often used to hide parameters that are not very useful in everyday life. In a UNIX system, hidden files begin with a dot ..

In file explorers they may be hidden by default. It is possible to activate their display if necessary, often with the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + H. — Wikipedia


(Hypertext Markup Language) Markup language designed to represent Web pages. — Wikipedia, MDN web docs


Copy of software or a computer object having its own existence and state.

For example, we speak of an instance each time a software is executed with different data. On the CLUB1 server, there are notably several instances of PHP: at least one for each member. — Wiktionary


Publicly accessible global computer network. The Internet is actually the interconnection of a set of networks around the world. As the name suggests, “inter” “net” = “between networks”. It is therefore a “network of networks”. — Wikipedia

IP address#

Identification number of a computer connected to a computer network.

The IP protocol (originally created for Internet) is used to transport data between a source computer and its destination. For this, it needs IP addresses in order to identify these two computers.

Currently, two versions of IP addresses are used: Version 4 which is written as numbers separated by periods (e.g. for the CLUB1 server). And version 6 which uses much larger numbers and is written in hexadecimal (e.g. 2001:861:38c4:18a0::3 for the CLUB1 server). — Wikipedia


Originally refers to the logbook of a ship. In computing it is a journal containing a history of events, usually in the form of a plain text file. — Wikipedia


Lightweight markup language for creating formatted text. Documents written in Markdown are usually intended to be converted to HTML, in order to make it a Web page. Its main advantage over HTML is its sleek syntax, which makes it more pleasant to read and write for a human. — Wikipedia


(PHP Hypertext Preprocessor) High-level programming language, primarily used to produce Web pages dynamically by generating HTML code. Its acronym originally stood for “Personal Home Page” and it is precisely the language that CLUB1 puts forward for the creation of dynamic websites. — Wikipedia


Dans le contexte de l’informatique, un protocole est un ensemble de règles qui régissent les échanges de données ou le comportement collectif de processus ou d’ordinateurs en réseaux. — Wikipedia


Software that provides a service. It holds the data and responds to requests from a client. Often, servers and clients are installed on different computers. By extension, the computer on which the servers are installed is called a “server” (e.g. the CLUB1 server). — Wikipedia


In computing, a terminal was originally a device consisting of a monitor and a keyboard, allowing a human to interact with a remote shared computer. It offered a textual interface, making it possible to enter commands and read the result.

De nos jours, on utilise souvent le mot “terminal” comme raccourci pour désigner un “émulateur de terminal”. Il s’agit d’un logiciel recréant l’interface en ligne de commande (CLI) de ce materiel. — Wikipedia


(Transport Layer Security) Protocol used to secure exchanges in a computer network. One of its main features is to encrypt all data exchanged between the client and the server, so that no one else can read its content. — Wikipedia


One of the best known services on Internet. Its full name is “World Wide Web” (also abbreviated “www”). It allows to publish documents and link them together using hypertext links.

A “Web page”usually consists of a document whose content is written in HTML and may include other resources such as images or “style sheets”. The client used to access it is called a “Web browser”. — Wikipedia

Web client#

Client accessible via the Web and executed by a Web browser.